PMIU Programs & Projects
- Capacity Building of Teachers
- Capacity Building of Education Managers
- Textbook Reform
- Provision of Free Textbooks
- Stipends for Girl Students
- Provision of Missing Facilities
- Recruitment of Teachers
- School Councils
- Restructuring of the Punjab Education Foundation (PEF)
- Establishment of the Punjab Examination Commission (PEC)
- Monitoring and Evaluation
CAPACITY BUILDING OF TEACHERS
Teacher training is one of the major reform areas in Punjab. Directorate of Staff Development (DSD) was restructured in 2004 as the GoPb’s key department responsible for conceptualizing, structuring and delivering new methods of teacher training. Since 2005-06, DSD has concentrated on providing support and training to teachers under its Continuing Professional Development (CPD) program, which is based on international best practices in teacher training, and research on pedagogical methods.
- The CPD has a decentralized management structure, with the DSD acting as the apex institution responsible for conceptualizing policy matters and providing overall leadership and direction.
Most of the CPD related activities take place at the sub-provincial level. Clustering is a key feature of the program, and centrally located schools in each tehsil have been designated as Cluster Training and Support Centers (CTSCs), from where teacher support activities for the primary school teachers in the cluster are organized.
Two District Teacher Educators (DTEs), who are drawn from the regular teaching cadre at grade 17, are deployed at each CTSC. A district typically has between 40 and 65 CTSCs. Similarly, District Training and Support Centers (DTSCs) have been set up at the district level to support elementary and higher secondary school teachers. DTSCs are also preparing Teacher Development Plans (TDPs) for the districts in accordance with the requirements of the CPD.
CAPACITY BUILDING OF EDUCATION MANAGERS
Since the responsibility for M&E, along with other management functions in the education sector lies with local government staff. It is therefore crucial to build managerial capacity at the district level, by providing necessary logistics as well as human resource development support.
The Government of Punjab GoPb therefore developed a Rs. 694 million capacity building project for local governments in 2007, according to which district government education managers would be provided with logistical (in the form of vehicles), technical (in the form of computers) and managerial (in the form of managerial training in education management) support to help them enhance their performance.
To achieve this goal; the contract for training of district education officials has been awarded to the Government College University (GCU), which has developed appropriate training modules for the purpose.
The training consists in three levels of certification i.e.
Advanced Certification for EDOs and District Education Officers (DEOs)
Mid-Level Certification for Deputy DEOs.
Basic Certification for Assistant Education Officers (AEOs).
The course content is designed to strengthen
- Managerial skills (e.g. Organization, Leadership, Standard Practices and Personnel Management etc.)
- Communication and IT skills.
- Financial and administrative planning and budgeting.
The course also incorporates a module of the education sector reform program of the GoPb.
In (2009-2010),325 (11 batches) of BS- 19 officers and 174 (6 batches) 0f BS-18 officers completed their advance level certification
By the end of March 5th 2011, 487 officers of BS-18 & 19 have been trained under this capacity building program.
The Punjab Textbook Board (PTTB) is an autonomous institution whose patron in chief or Controlling Authority is the Governor of the province. The Board is entirely self-financed, but is responsible for ensuring that textbooks developed in the province broadly follow the approved guidelines of the Government of Punjab (GoPb), and are developed in accordance with the curriculum prepared by the Federal Government.
A new curriculum was introduced by the Federal Government in 2007 to
- Promote the spirit of enquiry in students.
Break the traditional systems of teaching based on rote learning.
The issuance of the new textbook policy i.e. the National Textbook and Learning Materials Policy and Plan of Action, by the federal government has introduced the concept of public-private partnership in textbook development. The policy recommends a well regulated, competitive system of textbook development and publication.
Accordingly, the PTTB has taken a quantum leap from an in-house writing and production process, to the one where contracts for textbook development and publication are awarded through a policy of open competition.
The publishers are required by PTTB to
Register their intent to develop and publish textbooks for particular subjects. Submission of manuscripts for review and approval is mandatory for such applicants.
These manuscripts are then vetted by the Provincial Review Committee (PRC) for review of textbooks. PRC has two subject specialists, two teachers currently teaching those grades for which books are being reviewed, one representative of the PTBB and a representative of the Nazariya-e-Pakistan Trust (A private body aimed at upholding the principles of the ideology of Pakistan in public life).
Manuscripts approved by the PRC are sent to the National Review Committee (NRC) for final review and approval.
Once the textbooks are approved and prescribed for the province they are evaluated and field tested for conformity with a set of criteria, with teachers, education specialists and students providing input on functionality of the textbook.
Thus textbook development has ceased to be an in-house activity, with little public input, to the one where a broad range of stakeholders give feedback to the PTBB.
PROVISION OF FREE TEXTBOOKS
Expenditure on education has been judged as one the key grounds of low enrollment and high dropout rates. To address this issue the Government of Punjab (GoPb) allowed free provision of textbooks for all grades from Katchi (or nursery) to Grade 10.
The activity began in 2004-05, with 12.2 million textbooks being distributed to primary school students across the province. In 2005-06, the program was extended to elementary school, with 20.9 million textbooks being distributed.
In 2011-12, the GoPb distributed almost 40.08 million textbooks to just under 10597301 million students, covering all levels from Katchi to Grade 10.
STIPENDS FOR GIRL STUDENTS
Since the cost of education and dropout rate tends to be highest ever for girls particularly from grade 6-10 therefore the Government of Punjab (GoPb) instituted a stipend program for girl students of elementary schools in October 2003.
The program beneficiaries are girl students from grades 6-10 in 15 low literacy districts. The stipend, of Rs. 200 per month, is paid quarterly through the postal service to assure the delivery of money orders in the name of the girl students at their homes.
As of 2010-11 almost 375605 girl students were benefitted from the scheme.
The stipend program is one of the most successful initiatives of the GoPb as it has raised the gross enrollment ratio for girls in middle schools from 43 to 53 percent over the period of three years (i.e. 2003 -2006) and in absolute terms enrolment has increased upto 60 percent.
PROVISION OF MISSING FACILITIES
The Government of Punjab (GoPb) carried out a limited survey to assess the state of infrastructure in public schools in 2003 with the help of District Managers. The survey assessed
The condition of school if it is housed in a building and it also needs repair. Moreover; the building is dangerous or satisfactory.
If the school had the essential facilities like toilet, drinking water, boundary wall, electricity, furniture and an adequate number of classrooms.
The GoPb has now taken up the issue of provision of missing facilities with a more focused approach, using school-based data analysis as the basis for assessment of civil works needed, as well as estimated costs. According to this whole School approach; once a school is prioritized for provision of facilities, all missing infrastructure in the school would be provided in one go.
The school is selected on the basis of highest enrollment. Process steps are as under
- PMIU-PESRP prepares a list of the most needy schools for DMO who provides the list to a Joint Survey Team constituted for the purpose under the aegis of the PMIU.
The Team carries out a survey of those needy schools and enlists all civil works needed as well as the rough cost of provision of all facilities.
The District Steering Committee of the respective district prioritizes the schools for the provision of missing facilities.EDO Education prepares PC-1s for the provision of missing facilities while the District Development Committee (DDC) approves it upon submission by EDO Education. After that approval, the District Works and Services Department undertakes the execution of the schemes.
RECRUITMENT OF TEACHERS
Teacher absenteeism and lack of teachers in schools is one of the causes of low levels of learning achievement in the public sector institutions. The Government of Punjab (GoPb) is committed to ensure that the requisite posts for teachers in all schools are filled, and that teachers are trained in accordance with a program of continuous professional development.
The PESRP brought about some immediate changes in the recruitment policy in 2003-04.To bring about conformity in the recruitment process; the GoPb issued a new recruitment policy for educators in August 2008 announcing the recruitment of 34,054 educators across the province for FY 2008-09. The more elaborated features of the policy are
- Hiring of teachers (Educators as non-permanent staff) on school specific contract basis rather than as permanent staff of the School Education Department.
- Educators were to be hired for a period of five years on non-transferable contracts for certain specific school.
- The minimum educational qualification requirement was increased.
Annual salary increments were based on performance evaluation, rather than the regular service system of salary increments.
- The posts against which hiring is to be made would include the posts of Elementary School Educators (ESEs), Senior Elementary School Educators (SESEs) and Senior School Educators (SSEs).
The marks division is solely against criteria of qualification and years of experience. A maximum of five marks have been allotted for the candidate’s interview – a move that significantly reduces the discretion of the recruitment committee.
- District governments were made primarily responsible for the whole recruitment process.
As identified in the new Recruitment Policy 2008-09 the process steps are as under
- Advertisements for teaching posts are to be issued by the District Coordination Officer (DCO), and are paid for by the respective district governments.
- Applications are scrutinized by a Recruitment Cell established under the aegis of the Executive District Officer (EDO) Education.
- Handing over the application to the District Monitoring Officer (DMO) for data entry and generation of pre-interview merit lists.
- Pre-interview lists are prominently displayed in the offices of the DMO and EDO Education.
- The Recruitment Committee carries out a formative evaluation of the applications, assigning marks to each applicant on the basis of adherence to the application package, qualifications and experience, and local residency. (Recruitment committee is chaired by DCO and the EDO Education the EDO Finance and Planning along with a nominee of the GoPb are the members of committee).
- The Recruitment Committee is required to interview the candidates and prepare a merit list accordingly, which is again displayed in the offices of the DMO and the EDO Education.
PERFORMANCE BASED INCENTIVES FOR TEACHERS
The idea of awarding extra monetary rewards based on performance for the teachers is a major contributing factor in improving the quality, access and equity in public education. Moreover; it promotes the spirit of teamwork and coordination among the staff and management of the schools. Bearing it in mind the Government of Punjab (GoPb) decided to reward the teachers on the basis of the performance of the students in their final examination of terminal classes i.e. grade 5, 8, 10, 12.
Two types of programs were designed to appreciate the teachers efforts of the public schools, that are
HIGH ACHIEVERS PROGRAM:
- High Achievers program (launched in all 36 Districts of Punjab)
High Improvers program (Pilot program launched in three District i.e. Attock ,Mandi Bahauddin,Rahim Yar Khan)
The Chief Minister of Punjab approved the teachers performance based incentive- High Achiever Program in the financial year 2008-09.To conform the uniform and successful delivery of services the GoPb in consultation with PMIU-PESRP and World Bank made a few amendments in previous practice; the School Education Department notified very clearly
- Category-wise entitlement of Performance Based Incentive.
- Selection and Appellate Committees.
- Selection Criteria.
- Domain of Competition.
Relevant terms and conditions.
Only the teachers of top 20% of the high performing schools are entitled for this performance based incentive. Eligible schools are selected on the basis of certain quantifiable features assigned different weightage to generate more transparent and fool-proof merit lists. These features are
- Examination Results/School Achievement weightage 70%
- Gain in School Enrollment (GSE) weightage 15%
- Test Participation Rate (TPR) weightage 15%
Schools are organized in four ranking lists
- Primary Schools (classes’ upto 5) are ranked at markaz level with minimum participation of 20 students.
- Elementary/ Middle Schools (classes’ upto 8) are ranked at tehsil level with minimum participation of 30 students.
- Secondary Schools (classes’ upto 10) are ranked at district level with minimum participation of 40 students.
- Higher Secondary Schools (classes’ upto 12) are ranked at district level with minimum participation of 30 students.
Owing to the Unique Database housed in PMIU-PESRP; it is possible to carry out the calculations on the basis of decided factors and formulae; hence total Score of each eligible school was calculated. These provisional lists are sent to District Monitoring Officer’s office to share with District Education team to speed up the process of screening of high achieving schools.
The Selection and Appellate Committees reserve the power the remove any deficiency in calculation according to the formulas explicitly defined. Schools are finally notified by the EDO Education and the selection of this top 20% Schools has been kept gender blind.
Selection and Appellate Committees:
- Selection Committee for Primary and Elementary levels is chaired by District Education Officer (male/female Elementary Education) including Deputy District Education Officer (male/female Elementary Education) and Senior Most Head Master of the High School in particular Tehsil as members.
- Appellate Committee for primary and elementary levels is chaired by the Executive District Officer Education (EDO-Edu) including District Education Officer (male/female Elementary Education) and Senior Most Head Master/Principal of High and Higher Secondary School in the District Concerned as members.
- Selection Committee for High and Higher Secondary levels is chaired by the Executive District Officer Education (EDO-Edu) including District Officer Secondary (DO (SE) and Senior Most Head Master/Principal of High and Higher Secondary School in the District Concerned as members.
- Appellate Committee for high and Higher Secondary levels is chaired by District Coordination Officer (DCO) or his representative including the EDO-Edu and Executive District Officer (Finance & Planning) as members.
Community participation is quite essential to bring about much needed governance reform in education management.
The SC policy makes it mandatory for all government schools to constitute a 7 to 15 member council comprising of parents, teachers and other members of the community who would be responsible for
- Teachers’ presence in school.
- Increase in enrolment by motivating parents to send their children to school.
- Participation in co-curricular activities.
- Taking measures to safeguard teachers/students rights.
- Providing support in the distribution of free textbooks and stipends in the school.
- Taking measures to protect school buildings.
- Hold meetings at least once a month.
- Preparation a School Development Plan for the use of funds, and maintain certain records.
In addition to details of the role and responsibilities of the SCs, the policy specifies procedural details for the selection of members, financial procedures which the councils must follow, and monitoring mechanisms.
Terms of Partnership signed between the GoPb and district governments allows the district governments to transfer the funds directly from their accounts to the commercial bank accounts of the SCs.
CAPACITY BUILDING OF SCHOOL COUNCILS
The objective of empowering SCs such that they would contribute to the achievement of key PESRP goals, including increasing enrolment, checking the dropout rate in addition to facilitating the provision of key school infrastructure, a pilot project called the School Council Capacity Building Project (SCCBP) was initiated in six districts in 2005-06, with 400 schools participating from each district.
The SCCBP was implemented with the help of two NGOs
- National Rural Support Program (NRSP)
- Punjab Rural Support Program (PRSP)
Two capacity building models were tested.
- In Model A, which was followed in five districts, school management itself became the responsibility of the RSPs in addition to capacity building of the councils. Thus while the district government continued to disburse salaries to its employees in model A pilot schools, it authorized the RSP concerned to rationalize staff as per school needs in addition to other management activities.
- In model B, which was only followed in Chakwal, school management remained the responsibility of the district government, while capacity building of the SCs was undertaken by the RSP.
An important activity in this regard was the development of School Based Action Plans (SBAPs) for each selected school by the respective SC.
The RSPs organized 3-4 days training programs developed by the Institute of Rural Management (IRM) and the University of Education for at least 4 SC members, who were briefed on
- Roles and responsibilities of the SCs.
- Demeanor of SC meetings.
- Preparation of SBAPs.
- Record keeping.
- Monitoring and evaluation.
- Effective communication.
- Networking including consultative dispute resolution mechanisms.
A year later, SCs began to finalize SBAPs, using the expertise of RSP engineers to estimate the costs of civil works.SBAPs were scrutinized by the EDO Education, the concerned RSP and the PMIU-PESRP under the guidelines of SCCBP.After the approval; funds for implementation of the SBAPs were transferred to the bank account of the respective SC.
The funds release to SCs took place in two phases;according to the NRSP’s records, phase I of the program witnessed the release of approximately Rs. 288.75 million to 1641 schools, while in the second phase, Rs. 233.14 million were released to 1528 schools.
The SCCBP pilot project matured in June 2008, but the RSPs have continued to remain engaged with the reorganized SCs through the community organizations functioning in the selected districts. Under the next phase of the SCCBP, 17,060 school councils received training in the current year, while another 20, 494 school councils would be trained in 2010-2011 and another 19,000 in 2011-2012
SCHOOL COUNCIL POLICY
The SC policy makes it mandatory for all government schools to constitute a 7 to 15 member council comprising of parents, teachers and other members of the community who would be responsible for ensuring teachers’ presence, increasing enrolment by motivating parents to send their children to school, conducting co-curricular activities, taking measures to safeguard teachers/students rights, providing support in the distribution of free textbooks and stipends in the school, and taking measures to protect school buildings. The Councils are required to hold meetings at least once a month, prepare a School Development Plan for the use of funds, and maintain certain records.
In addition to details of the role and responsibilities of the SCs, the policy specifies procedural details for the selection of members, financial procedures which the councils must follow, and monitoring mechanisms. The policy also specifies that under the Terms of Partnership signed between the GoPb and district governments, district governments can transfer funds directly from their accounts to the commercial bank accounts of the SCs. In a move to encourage councils to undertake necessary small-scale projects without fear of excessive scrutiny, the expenditure made by SCs was taken out of the purview of Punjab Financial Rules, thereby barring audit of SC expenditure under the government rules.
The funds release to SCs took place in two phases, with release based on the review of the respective SBAPs prepared by the SCs. According to the NRSP’s records, phase I of the program witnessed the release of approximately Rs. 288.75 million to 1641 schools, while in the second phase, Rs. 233.14 million were released to 1528 schools. The SCCBP pilot project matured in June 2008, but the RSPs have continued to remain engaged with the reorganized SCs through the community organizations functioning in the selected districts. Under the next phase of the SCCBP, 17,060 school councils received training in the current year, while another 20, 494 school councils would be trained in 2010-2011 and another 19,000 in 2011-2012.
RESTRUCTURING OF THE PUNJAB EDUCATION FOUNDATION (PEF)
The growth in the number of private sector educational institutions from the mid 1990s prompted a reconsideration of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) for the education sector in Punjab, with the Government of the Punjab acknowledging that the two could complement each other, instead of operating as rivals. This realization prompted the establishment of the Punjab Education Foundation (PEF) in 1991. Initially, the PEF was constituted as a public sector entity, whose Board of Directors and Managing Director was appointed by the Government of the Punjab. The key responsibility of PEF was to provide loans and grants to non-profit entities wanting to set up educational institutions. From 1991 to 2004, PEF was working as a limited scope financial institution, and had not succeeded in energizing private sector investment in education.
In 2004, the Government of the Punjab introduced legislation to reappoint the PEF as an autonomous body, with eight of its fifteen directors consisting of persons associated with NGOs, research institutions or private sector entities working in the education sector. The Chairperson of the Board is appointed from amongst the non-official Board members, and the Managing Director is now appointed by the Board. The restructured PEF was given the mandate of providing financial assistance to private schools catering to low income households, with the specific provision that 75 percent of its resources would be earmarked for the support of low-cost private schools in disadvantaged areas.
PEF activities, since its restructuring, include the identification of Foundation Assisted Schools (FASs) where tuition fee is picked up by PEF, and students are required to maintain a specific level of achievement, measured through annually held Quality Assurance Tests (QATs). At present, the program is covering 2162 schools in 36 districts, with 10, 74,491 students benefiting from the intervention. Through its continuous professional development program (CPDP), PEF is providing cluster-based training in pedagogical skills to teachers of low-cost private schools. In another attempt to provide quality teaching resources to such schools, PEF has initiated a program for Subject Based Support Program (SBSP) in 24 selected districts. Under the SBSP, subject specialists are engaged at market based salaries, and deputed to teach in low-cost private school clusters in urban and rural areas. The SBSP is covering 166 schools and employs 83 subject specialists.
PEF has also piloted an education voucher scheme in peri-urban and backward areas of Lahore, in which education vouchers for children aged 4 to 17 have been delivered to 1,40,000 deserving students of 235 selected slums in the province. The vouchers, which are redeemable against fee in educational institutions, enable households to send their children to a quality school of their choice. Lastly, PEF’s New School Program (NSP) offers assistance to entrepreneurs who wish to open low-cost private schools in areas where literacy rates are exceptionally low and the ratio of out-of-school children is very high. Under this scheme, PEF is funding 429 schools across the province.
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PUNJAB EXAMINATION COMMISSION (PEC)
The PEC was established as an autonomous body in January 2006, and was mandated to conduct standardized examinations for Grade 5 and Grade 8 to enable education managers in the province to assess learning outcomes in general as well as to identify institutions which require particular attention. PEC is responsible for the entire cycle of assessment from registration of students to setting question papers, printing and dissemination of the question papers, conduct of examinations, marking, dissemination of results and analysis of results. The first set of examinations was conducted by PEC in 2006 and only covered Grade 5. Thereafter, examinations for both Grades 5 and 8 were conducted in 2007 and 2009.
The initial establishment of PEC was done by administrative order. However, by October 2006, it had been decided that PEC would be constituted through appropriate legislation, so that the role and responsibilities of the Commission as well as its administrative structure would be clearly defined. In March 2008, the Governor promulgated the Punjab Examination Commission Ordinance, according to which the Commission was mandated to design, develop, implement, maintain, monitor and evaluate a system of examinations for elementary education; formulate policy for the conduct of such examinations; and build capacity of teachers and education management staff to improve systems of learning assessment. The Commission is still in a state of transition however, and continues to be dependent on Education Department resources, both financial and administrative, for conduct of examinations. The Commission is also short of technical and other staff. There is a need to provide a sound legislative basis for the Commission, through the approval of the PEC Ordinance by the Punjab Assembly.
MONITORING AND EVALUATION
Since the monitoring and evaluation provides the only consolidated source of information showcasing project progress that contributes to transparency, accountability, retention and finally to the development of an institution.
Bearing in mind The Government of Punjab (GoPb) instituted a comprehensive school monitoring system, the key components of which are
1. Annual school census
2. School Management Information System (SMIS)
3. Monthly monitoring system.
At the apex of the M&E system is; the GoPb’s Program Monitoring and Implementation Unit (PMIU) that was established to oversee the implementation of the education sector reform programs. The PMIU works in conjunction with the Department of School Education, GoPb and acts as the policy and implementation wing of the Department. The PMIU’s key task with regard to monitoring is to regulate an effective data collection system at the district level.
1. The lynchpin of the GoPb’s school monitoring system is the office of the District Monitoring Officer (DMO), based at district and reports to the PMIU.The DMOs in turn supervise a field staff of Monitoring and Evaluation Assistants (MEAs), who are responsible for undertaking regular field visits and collection of data on facilities.
2. The MEAs are recruited and their positions are funded by a province based entity, the Chief Minister’s Monitoring Force (CMMF) which was established to assist in the monitoring of all development schemes initiated in the province and reports directly to the Secretary School Education.CMMF headed by a Deputy Director (Monitoring) who is responsible for recruitment, HRM and Budgetary issues relating to MEAs.
3. The MEAs are almost all retired Junior Commissioned Officers (JCOs) retired from the armed forces, and hired on three-year contracts. Their performance is evaluated at the end of the contract period by the DMO. There are 929 sanctioned posts of MEAs, of which 839 are currently filled.
1. MEAs are assigned “school circles” or areas in each district, such that they are able to visit at least 4 schools per day, and visit all the schools in their circle at least once a month. Thus in theory each district employs MEAs according to this proportion – ensuring that all schools in the district are covered at least once a month.
2. MEA’s circles are rotated every month, so each MEA is responsible for a different school circle in successive months. This prevents MEAs from forming personal relationships with school staff of a particular area, thus reducing the possibility of collusion.
3. MEAs are required to fill out a two page monthly monitoring form, which checks for the status of basic facilities, enrolment and teacher attendance among other things. Once a year, the MEAs also act as enumerators for the SMIS
4. The monthly monitoring data collected by the MEAs is entered into a program at the district level, and sent on to the PMIU for collation and analysis every month.
5. SMIS data is sent in raw form (as paper forms) to the PMIU, and is entered, cleaned (through a series of data validation checks developed by PMIU) and collated in Lahore
Though these MEAs have been deputed to monitor the performance of facilities other than those of the education department in last two years, school level monitoring yet continues to be their prime responsibility.
In addition to the monthly monitoring forms and the SMIS, the PMIU has instituted cross-checks for the monitoring of delivery of stipends and free textbooks
RANKING OF DISTRICTS AND DIVISIONS/PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INDEX:
- Funds for stipend distribution are transferred from the District Government’s account (Account IV) to the Joint Postal Account of the EDO Education.
- The EDO’s office receives filled out money order forms for each quarter, in the names of the girls eligible for stipend receipt from all middle and high schools in the stipend district.
- These forms are checked for completeness by the EDO’s staff, and are then sent, along with a list of eligible students, to the General Post Office of the district, from where the distribution of money orders takes place.
- At the end of the distribution cycle, the General Post Office compiles a list of money order receipts from each union council and tehsil, and notifies the office of the EDO Education of funds disbursed in that quarter.
- This information is sent by the EDO’s office each quarter to the PMIU, where it is entered in a database, enabling the PMIU to keep a record of each stipend payment to each eligible beneficiary.
- FREE TEXT BOOKS:
The monthly monitoring of textbooks has backward linkages with a departmental system of monitoring distribution of free textbooks.
- The distribution system for free textbooks is such that books are transported from the warehouses of the PTTB to district headquarters, and then on to tehsil level warehouses for onward distribution to union councils, and to schools, where the school heads verify the receipt of the stock.
- At each stage of distribution, Education Department officials responsible for managing the warehouses fill out forms specifying the number of textbooks received, and then the number sent on for the next stage of distribution.
- Tehsil warehouse managers send an inventory status report to the DMO each month, detailing number of textbooks distributed, and the number sent back from schools (surplus stocks).
- The DMO in turn sends this information on to PMIU, where it is entered in a database, enabling education sector managers to get monthly updates on the stock and flows of textbooks from warehouses.
- MONTHLY MONITORING DATA:
It is used for creating quarterly and annual ranking of the Districts and Divisions. Once reviewed the Monitoring Data is verified and cross checked by the office of Deputy Director (Monitoring & Evluation) through internally developed protocols.
The key use of the monitoring data is the development of a composite index, which assigns weightage to different indicators in the monthly monitoring forms, and is then used to rank district performance.
Teacher’s absenteeism, measured as a function of total teacher’s posts sanctioned, and teachers present in schools during monitoring visits, is the variable assigned the greatest weightage in the composite. Other variables include student enrollment and attendance gaps, the systematic provision of free textbooks, school cleanliness, visits by district education department officials etc.
The composite index of district performance is prepared on
- Monthly basis at the district level, and is presented by the DMO in the monthly meeting of the District Review Committee, chaired by the DCO and include the EDO Education a representative of the NLC.
- The Committee reviews the month’s progress, and takes decisions on issues highlighted through the composite index.
- The index also enables a comparison across districts, and helps the PMIU to provide feedback to district governments on areas where administrative measures have to be taken.
In practice, the issue of teacher’s absenteeism has been the most frequently highlighted issue for all districts.
The M&E system enables the identification of specific individuals whose attendance is irregular, and both the PMIU and DMOs have provided lists of such employees to the district governments for further action. In the bulk of cases, the district government uses the information to issue warnings to teachers, but in some cases, dismissals from service have been effected for repeat offenders.
The other key use of monitoring data is the identification of schools where essential facilities are missing. The features are as under
THIRD PARTY VALUATIONS (TPV’s)
- Lists of such schools, along with details of funds needed for facilities provision are given to the District Development Committees (DDCs) which meet quarterly to decide on the allocation of funds across development schemes for the districts.
- The DDCs, which are chaired by the DCO and include the Zila Nazim and Naib Nazim, EDOs Education and Finance & Planning, District Officer Accounts and a representative of NLC, make the final decision on the prioritization of schemes for implementation and the allocation of available funds.
In addition to cross-checks across the two databases and triangulation of data, third party validation (TPV) exercises have been institutionalized in Punjab under the aegis of the PESRP. To date, seven TPVs have been carried out to test the validity of monthly monitoring data on enrolment, to assess the quality of civil works and supply of furniture being carried out under the program for up-gradation of missing facilities, to verify the actual receipt of stipends and of free textbooks